Cardiometabolic

Our Cardiometabolic Special Interest Group is able to investigate areas of human heart and vessels health and disorders, liver and gastrointestinal function. The group has a range of measures on our participants relating to blood pressure, heart rates, vascular function, liver and gastrointestinal function, gut microbiome, and blood and urine markers of heart, vessel, liver and gastrointestinal function across different ages and generations within the Raine Study.

SIG Leaders:

Prof Trevor Mori, The University of Western Australia

Dr Koya Ayonrinde, The University of Western Australia

Key Findings over the last 30 years include:

Using information collected from the Raine Study participants, researchers found that mothers’ exposure to stress during pregnancy predicts higher body weight, but lower blood pressure in offspring at early adulthood. Additionally, infants who breastfeed for less than six months before starting formula and who were obese as teenagers or had mothers who were obese during pregnancy were more likely to have non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adolescence, while breastfeeding for at least six months were associated with reduced risk for this disease in adolescence. Researchers also showed that measures of the body’s stress response system and vitamin D levels are associated with a range of factors related to risk of developing heart and vessels disease in adolescents.

Maternal exposure to life stresses during pregnancy predicts increased weight but lower blood pressure in offspring at 20 years of age.

  • Bhat SK, Beilin LJ, Robinson M, Burrows S, Mori TA. Contrasting effects of prenatal life stress on blood pressure and body mass index in young adults. Journal of Hypertension. 2015;33:711–19.

Infants who consumed breast milk for less than six months before starting infant formula milk and infants who were obese as teenagers or had mothers who were obese at the start of pregnancy, were much more likely to have non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adolescence. 

  • Ayonrinde OT, Oddy WH, Adams LA, Mori TA, Beilin LJ, de Klerk N, Olynyk JK. Infant nutrition and maternal obesity influence the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adolescents. Journal of Hepatology. 2017;67(3): 568-576.
  • Ayonrinde OT, Adams LA, Mori TA, Beilin LJ, de Klerk N, Pennell CE, White S, Olynyk JK.  Sex differences between parental pregnancy characteristics and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adolescents. Hepatology. 2018;67:108-22.

Breastfeeding for at least six months prior to commencing infant formula milk is associated with reduced risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adolescents.  

  • Ayonrinde OT, Oddy WH, Adams LA, Mori TA, Beilin LJ, de Klerk N, Olynyk JK.  Infant nutrition and maternal obesity prospectively influence the risk of non-aloholic fatty liver disease in adolescents.  J Hepatol.  2017;67(3):568-576.

Risk for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease during adolescence is identifiable from trajectories of weight and body mass index from age three years onwards.  

  • Ayonrinde OT, Olynyk JK, Marsh JA, Beilin LJ, Mori TA, Oddy WH, Adams LA.  Childhood adiposity trajectories and risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adolescents. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 2015;30(1):163-171.

Positive association between handgrip strength and back muscle endurance with systolic blood pressure throughout childhood and adolescence contrasts with beneficial effects on other related traditional cardiometabolic risk factors.

  • Demmer DL, Beilin LJ, Hands B, Burrows S, Cox K, Straker L, Mori TA.  Effects of muscle strength and endurance on blood pressure and related cardio-metabolic risk factors from childhood to adolescence. Journal of Hypertension 2016,34:2365-75.

In adolescents, measures of the body’s stress response system is associated with a range of factors related to risk of developing heart and vessels disease.

  • Le-Ha C, Herbison CE, Beilin LJ, Burrows S, Henley DE, Lye SJ; Matthews SG, Pennell CE, Mori TA. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity under resting conditions and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2016;66:118-24.

Vitamin D concentrations are associated with risk factors for heart disease.

  • Black, L. J.; Burrows, S.; Lucas, R. M.; Marshall, C. E.; Huang, R. C.; Chan She Ping-Delfos, W.; Beilin, L. J.; Holt, P. G.; Hart, P. H.; Oddy, W. H.; Mori, T. A. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents and young adults. British Journal of Nutrition. 2016;115(11): 1994-2002.

Working longer than 38h per week was associated with factors related to the development of heart and vessel disease.

  • Reynolds AC, Bucks RS, Paterson JL, Ferguson SA, Mori TA, McArdle N, Straker L, Beilin LJ, Eastwood PR. Working (longer than) 9 to 5: are there cardiometabolic health risks for young Australian workers who report longer than 38-h working weeks? Internationl Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. 2018;91(4):403-12.

Studies of heritable changes in genes have identified DNA methylation (process in which there is change in the activity of a DNA segment without changing its sequence) related to being overweight or obese in young adulthood.

  • Huang RC, Galati JC, Burrows S et al. DNA Methylation of the IGF2/H19 Imprinting Control Region and Adiposity Distribution in Young Adults. Clinical Epigenetics. 2012;4(1):21.

 

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